Funding entity GREENPEACE España
The SIGER project performs an analysis of the maximum renewable energy penetration into the Spanish electricity generation system, with the final aim of showing the technical viability and economic costs of an electricity generation system based on an as close as possible 100 % renewable energy penetration in the year 2050. The starting point of the study is the recompilation and further processing of adequate 2050 year population and electricity demand growth scenarios, as well as commercial state and market evolution of the different involved technologies. The required hypothesis to complete the 2050 scenarios is conservative, with the aim to develop the study with rather restrictive boundary conditions in order to obtain a lower limit of the renewable energy penetration. In the study the following technologies have been considered: Wind energy, solar thermoelectric, solar photovoltaic, biomass, hydroelectric, solar chimney, wave energy, geothermal, hydrogen technology, combined cycle power plants, solar thermal for DHW and heating, absorption solar cooling, bioclimatic architecture, and domestic biomass boilers. Models for the different generation technologies have been developed in order to proceed with a dynamic simulation to obtain their performances under the typical meteorological years in the different available sites through the national geography. This information has been afterwards incorporated on a model of the national electricity transport network to analyse from a technical point of view the possibility to admit all this renewable energy in the electricity generation and transportation system. Whit this analysis together with cost estimations; we obtain a zonification of the different renewable energy generation technologies that leads to maximum renewable electricity, as well as to the needed geographical distribution of combined cycle power plants to sustain the systems operation. The limitations introduced by the electricity generation network are analysed and proposals made to increase the renewable energy participation. Finally, an economical analysis is performed in order to evaluate the electricity costs and CO2 elimination costs of such an electricity generation system with high renewable energy penetration.