Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can help decarbonise the transportation sector, which is responsible for a great share of GHG emissions. Although different measures have been introduced to foster the penetration of PEVs in the society, they have not been deployed in a large scale yet. Electric utilities are concerned about the effects of introducing PEVs into the grid, especially for large amounts. The charging pattern of PEVs is the main factor that determines these effects. Unregulated charging (probably when returning home) would have undesirable consequences (e.g. increase in costs, emissions, reduction of reliability), it is therefore necessary to develop an intelligent strategy. Nonetheless, there are different parties (e.g. generators, distributors) and objectives (e.g. cost or emissions minimisation, demand valley-filling) to consider for an efficient integration of PEVs, which makes the problem even more difficult. These characteristics justify the existence of different smart charging profiles. It is also important to determine whether the use of real-time management systems is economically justified. This document compares different possible strategies for charging PEVs and their consequences in the power system. The impact on costs, emissions and RES integration will be obtained using the ROM model. This model determines the UC and daily economic dispatch of the system (optimization module), considering the uncertainty associated to the parameters in real-time operation (simulation module). The Spanish system for 2020 is analysed under different PEVs penetration levels and charging strategies. The results show the benefits of using a smart charging profile instead of an unregulated profile. The cost reduction for smart charging is about 4.1% (cost minimization) and 3.9% (valley-filling). Moreover, the benefits of using a real-time management system are also evaluated for the valley-filling profile, resulting in a cost reduction of 0.01% compared to the use of mean fixed charging profiles.
Palabras clave: electric vehicles (EVs), smart charge, valley-filling, optimization, RES integration
9th International Conference on Computational Management Science, Londres, Inglaterra (Reino Unido). 18 abril 2012
Fecha de publicación: abril 2012.
F. Bañez, J.M. Latorre, A. Ramos, Smart charging profiles for electric vehicles, 9th International Conference on Computational Management Science. ISSN: 1619-6988, Londres, Reino Unido, 18-20 Abril 2012