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Effects from carbon pricing and anti-leakage policies in selected industrial sectors in Spain - cement, steel and oil refining

A. Santamaría, P. Linares

Developing countries are experiencing unprecedented levels of economic growth. As a result, they will be responsible for most of the future growth in energy demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The development, transfer and use of low-­-carbon technologies are promising ways towards low-­-carbon development in these countries. However, the UNFCCC processes have so far had a limited success in promoting them. Two main pitfalls of the instruments created by the UNFCCC prevent them from promoting higher levels of technology transfer to developing countries. Firstly, their disconnection with the national enabling factors that attract foreign technologies and facilitate knowledge spillovers. Secondly, their homogeneous approach for all developing countries, even though these include large and dynamic economies as well as least developed countries. This paper addresses these pitfalls by analysing the differentiated performance of developing countries with regards to several indicators of enabling factors for technology transfer. Three quantitative analysis methodologies – principal component analysis, multiple regression analysis and cluster analysis – are used to identify the most important enabling factors of technology transfer and create groups of developing countries according to their performance in these. Policy recommendations are then adapted to the specific needs of each of the defined groups.

Keywords: technology transfer, climate change, developing countries, multivariate analysis

Fecha de Registro: 24/05/2011


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