Achieving Universal Access to modern energy services, as discussed in depth in the previous Working Papers of this series, poses an enormous challenge not only for countries with a large share of potential beneficiaries of modern technologies for lighting, cooking and heating, but also for those countries as Peru where the population without access lives in very isolated or inaccessible areas, or also in new informal settlements in the suburbs, characterized by their very low income and marginality. This Working Paper focuses on the alternatives, planning approaches and computer tools needed to reach this ?last mile?, with the necessary involvement of government, private capital and the beneficiaries. The electrification process that accompanies the transition from traditional lighting technologies (candles, kerosene, disposable or rechargeable batteries) to modern electricity supply modes (extension of the grid, microgrids or stand alone systems) must include: the definition of the appropriate (low cost) technologies to be used; a regulatory framework that clearly defines the rights and obligations of all parties involved and, specifically, the rules of remuneration for the provision of the service; and the sources of finance for this activity. The innovation on computer tools for Universal Access, as the Reference Electrification Model (REM) described and applied in this Working Paper, aim at being a valuable support for decision makers in the definition of successful and complex strategies. This Working Paper is the fourth report of the Low cost energy technologies for Universal Access project by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) acting through MIT?s Energy Initiative (MITEI) and in collaboration with Fondazione Centro Studi Enel (Enel Foundation). The project is developed in collaboration with Comillas Pontifical University - Institute for Research in Technology (COMILLAS - IIT) under the scope of the Comillas University Massachusetts Institute of Technology Electricity Systems (COMITES) Program. The purpose of this project is to contribute to the development of Universal Access strategies and tools for policymakers and practitioners. Building over an initial analysis of the State of the Art technologies, strategies and business models for electrification (Working Paper 1) and modern heat (Working Paper 2) the project proposes a methodology to develop country studies for the establishment of roadmaps to universal access (Working Paper 3). In the second phase the models and methodologies are applied to the study cases of Peru (Working Paper 4) and Kenya (Working Paper 5) to detail the potential of the application of these tools to the challenges of universal access planning and policy-making.
Keywords: Universal Access, off-grid electrification, grid extension, modern heat, business models, regulation, energy policy, enabling environment, decision support models.
Registration date: 2016-11-24