A massive introduction of electric vehicles (EV) in the society could have an important impact into the electric power systems, creating new challenges for the electricity sector in its structure and operation. The conventional system expansion models and market ones will not be able to deal correctly with this integration of the electric vehicles in addition with other expected developments that will take place in Europe during the same period (integration of more renewable energy sources (RES), active demand, distributed generation, etc). The objective of this report is to specify and explain the tools that are going to be used in order to evaluate the technical and economic impact of the electric vehicles into the mediumterm system operation, for instance, system reliability, marginal costs, generation mix, CO2 emissions. The report has been divided in two parts, one for each tool developed. Each part explains the basics and the possible applications of their respective tool. In order to see the effects of the presence of the electric vehicles in the system, three scenarios are examined: · In Scenario 1 the market is simulated without EVs. · In Scenario 2 two different levels of EV penetration are considered, while EVs act as simple loads: their owners simply define the timing and the amount of energy for charging; thus, the total load (households and EVs) grows. · In Scenario 3 EVs can absorb or inject energy to the grid, depending on the price levels. By this way, load flexibility is achieved to a certain level.
IIT Project: MERGE_EU_FP7 (MERGE)
Funding entity: Comisión Europea. FP7 - Cooperation / Energy