Transmission System Operators (TSOs) deploy frequency control reserves and regulating power to maintain the load-generation balance in real-time operation of power systems. In the Nordic countries, the TSOs buy regulating power from the Nord Pool regulating power market. In this paper, we developed a tool to quantify the price of regulating power as a function of both economic parameters such as spot (day-ahead) market price, and technical factors representing the current state of the system. First, the Nord Pool is considered as a single bidding area and an aggregated regulating power price is obtained, proving the validity of a simple non-linear algebraic model, when there is no influence of interconnections with neighboring areas. Then, we developed a case study for the West Denmark area, to demonstrate that for complex systems, where there is possibility of trade with other areas and there is high penetration of intermittent generation (e.g., wind power), this simple formulation is no longer valid. Finally, to solve this inconsistency, an improved model is here proposed by considering the effect of interconnections through two scenarios: one for unconstrained trade through the interconnections with neighbouring areas, and the second one where at least one of the interconnecting lines is congested. In addition, the wind penetration level is included as a parameter the non-linear algebraic model.
Keywords: Regulating power price, Nord Pool, Wind penetration, Interconnected market.
Publicado: junio 2018.