The aim of this study is to determine the risk of fatal head injury for adult pedestrians struck by a passenger car. The research focuses on the wrap around distance (WAD) and vehicle front geometry, including the effects of pedestrian height, impact speed and other parameters that directly influence the head impact against the vehicle. Data from GIDAS (German In-Depth Accident Study) were analysed. Imputation was used to increase the sample size and the statistical power. The probability distribution of the WAD was developed and projected onto the car contour. A WAD between 190 and 205 cm would imply a head impact against the windscreen for a medium sedan, but against the A-Pillar if the impact occurs on the front side zone. The front of the most frequent passenger vehicles was measured and classified in order to account for the injury causation potential. Respective injury risk curves for the different zones on the car front of medium and large sedans were obtained. As a result, four risk curves were developed relating the WAD and the probability of sustaining a fatal head injury during a pedestrian-passenger car accident. This probability is higher on the front side of the vehicle, reaching values of 70% for WADs between 190 and 200 cm. In pedestrian accidents where a medium sedan is involved and the person hits the centre of the vehicle front, for a WAD of 180 cm the probability of sustaining a fatal head injury is 30%.When a larger vehicle is involved, the risk could reach 47% for WADs of 190 cm.
Keywords: Fatal head injuries, pedestrian, vehicle front geometry, wrap around distance (WAD).
International Research Council on Biomechanics of Injury - IRCOBI 2015, Lyon (France). 09-11 September 2015
Publication date: September 2015.
R. Suárez del Fueyo, M. Junge, F.J. López-Valdés, Pedestrian fatal head injury risk as a function of the wrap around distance (wad) and the front geometry of the vehicle, International Research Council on Biomechanics of Injury - IRCOBI 2015. pp. 515-529, Lyon, France, 09-11 September 2015