The transport sector is a key element of economic activity in Spain and the welfare of its citizens. Efficient transport enables geographic specialization and economies of scale in industry, and promotes greater competition in the markets. Quality transport is also a prerequisite for the development of tourism, a key economic sector in Spain. Moreover, the usefulness of mobility as a factor for leisure is indisputable. However, transport also generates externalities: environmental impact (both through the emission of atmospheric pollutants and its contribution to climate change), congestion, accidents and noise. In particular, the transport sector is the largest emitter of greenhouse gases in Spain, with 27% of the total in 2018. This is mainly due to the fact that this sector is also the largest energy consumer, with 40% of the total final energy in 2018, energy that comes almost entirely from fossil fuels, derived from petroleum. This means that transport should be a priority sector in all strategies to decarbonize the economy, and in particular land transport, which accounts for 93% of emissions and more than 80% of the energy consumed[...].
Funding entity: Economics for Energy.