This paper proposes an optimization model based on a centralized dispatch to analyze the impact of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) penetration on the Spanish electricity demand and price. Different charging strategies, from the plug-and-charge strategy to the smartest vehicle-to-grid (V2G) capabilities, have been simulated and compared with the non PEV scenario, under different penetration values. Traditional generation resources have been represented with technical aspects such as ramps and minimum loads. Hydraulic resources management is also partially supported but limited to weekly management. Distribution network constraints and how they could limit the contribution of PEV to the grid services have been neglected. The model considers both load and reserve requirements to evaluate the PEV contribution to energy production or consumption, but also to secondary reserve regulation. Interesting results comparing the different simulation scenarios are discussed in the case examples.
Keywords: Electric vehicles, electricity prices, power demand, unit commitment, vehicle-to-grid.
9th International Conference on the European Energy Market - EEM 12
Publication date: May 2012.
J. Villar, C.A. Díaz, J. Arnau, F.A. Campos, Impact of plug-in-electric vehicles penetration on electricity demand, prices and thermal generation dispatch, 9th International Conference on the European Energy Market - EEM 12, Florencia, Italy, 10-12 May 2012. , ISBN: 978-1-4673-0832-8