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Project information

Reference Electrification Model - Test Cases Colombia and Kenya

F. de Cuadra P. Ciller A. González-García

July 2016 - October 2016

Funding entity Enel Foundation

Participated by Massachusetts Institute of Technology


The object of the project is to apply the Reference Electrification Model (REM) to the electrification planning in a region of Colombia and in a region of Kenya. REM will be able to perform objective quantitative assessments about the most convenient way to provide electricity service to each household, comparing together the three major electrification modes:
1) extend the existing grid; 2) build isolated grids with local generation (micro grids); and 3)
install isolated stand-alone systems on each target building.
The project schedule includes two different test cases:
1. a test case will be carried out in a small zone of a study region in Colombia, with
around 3,000 households, and evaluated by Enel SpA in order to understand the optimal
electrification solutions.
2. a test case will be carried out in a small zone of a study region in Kenya, with
around 15,200 households, and evaluated by Enel Green Power in order to understand the
optimal electrification solutions.


    Research topics:
  • *Green energy integration
  • *Steady-state: load flows, analysis of power system constraints, optimal load flows, voltage control ancilliary service,short-circuits, protections in transmission and ditribution networks

ENEL Kenya-Colombia Test Cases

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